Knowledge Base: Research

A neurophysiological insight into the potential link between transcranial magnetic stimulation, thalamocortical dysrhythmia and neuropsychiatric disorders

by Fuggetta et al Abstract Altered neural oscillations and their abnormal synchronization are crucial factors in the pathophysiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders. There is increasing evidence that the perturbation with an abnormal increase of spontaneous thalamocortical neural oscillations lead to a phenomenon termed Thalamocortical dysrhythmia (TCD) which underlies the symptomatology of a variety of neurological [...]

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Synchronization between the anterior and posterior cortex determines consciousness level in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI)

by Leon-Carrion Abstract Survivors of traumatic brain injury (TBI) often suffer disorders of consciousness as a result of a breakdown in cortical connectivity. However, little is known about the neural discharges and cortical areas working in synchrony to generate consciousness in these patients. In this study, we analyzed cortical connectivity in patients with severe neurocognitive [...]

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Neurofeedback for the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD: a randomized and controlled clinical trial using parental reports

by Nezla S Duric, Jørg Assmus, Doris Gundersen and Irene B Elgen Abstract Background A randomized and controlled clinical study was performed to evaluate the use of neurofeedback (NF) to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. Methods The ADHD population was selected from an outpatient clinic for Child and Adolescent Mental Health in [...]

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The emergence of abnormal hypersynchronization in the anatomical structural network of human brain

by Yan and Li Abstract Brain activity depends on transient interactions between segregated neuronal populations. While synchronization between distributed neuronal clusters reflects the dynamics of cooperative patterns, the emergence of abnormal cortical hypersynchronization is typically associated with spike-wave discharges, which are characterized by a sudden appearance of synchronous around 3 Hz large amplitude spike-wave discharges [...]

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Self-regulation of brain oscillations as a treatment for aberrant brain connections in children with autism

by Pineda and Datko Abstract Autism is a highly varied developmental disorder typically characterized by deficits in reciprocal social interaction, difficulties with verbal and nonverbal communication, and restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Although a wide range of behavioral, pharmacological, and alternative medicine strategies have been reported to ameliorate specific symptoms for some individuals, there is [...]

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Alpha power, alpha asymmetry and anterior cingulate cortex activity in depressed males and females

by Jaworska et al Abstract Left fronto-cortical hypoactivity, thought to reflect reduced activity in approach-related systems, and right parietal hypoactivity, associated with emotional under-arousal, have been noted in major depressive disorder (MDD). Altered theta activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has also been associated with the disorder. We assessed resting frontal and parietal alpha [...]

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Clinical utility of paced breathing as a concentration meditation practice

by Park and Park Summary Objectives The present study examined changes in electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters during paced breathing (PB) and their relationships with self-reported personality traits. Methods Fifty-eight meditation-naive subjects (36 men, 22 women) ranging in age from 20 to 30 years completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). After [...]

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Neurocognitive networks: Findings, models, and theory

by Meehan et al Abstract Through its early history, cognitive neuroscience largely followed a modular paradigm wherein high-level cognitive functions were mapped onto locally segregated brain regions. However, recent evidence drives a continuing shift away from modular theories of cognitive brain function, and toward theories which hold that cognition arises from the integrated activity of [...]

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Good vibrations: Oscillatory phase shapes perception

by Neulinga et al Abstract In the current study, we provide compelling evidence to answer the long-standing question whether perception is continuous or periodic. Spontaneous brain oscillations are assumed to be the underlying mechanism of periodic perception. Depending on the phase angle of the oscillations, an identical stimulus results in different perceptual outcomes. Past results, [...]

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Evidence-Based Information on the Clinical Use of Neurofeedback for ADHD

by Moriyama et al Abstract Neurofeedback (NF) is a training to enhance self-regulatory capacity over brain activity patterns and consequently over brain mental states. Recent findings suggest that NF is a promising alternative for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We comprehensively reviewed literature searching for studies on the effectiveness and specificity of NF for [...]

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